Estudio del contenido de metales pesados en suelos urbanos agrícolas

Oscar Díaz Rizo, Lázaro Lima Cazorla, Damaris García Céspedes, Katia D´Alessandro Rodríguez, Oscar Torres Leyva

Resumen

Se determinan por fluorescencia de rayos X las concentraciones de Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn y Pb en los suelos superficiales (0–10 cm) de 10 granjas agrícolas, localizadas en la vecindad de la planta de acero del Cotorro (La Habana, Cuba). Los rangos de concentraciones de Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn y Pb fueron de 54-186, 15-39, 19-137, 50-945, 91-7739 y 21-731 de peso seco respectivamente. Los contenidos medios de metales pesados en los suelos superficiales de las granjas se comparan con los niveles de metales pesados reportados en la literatura para suelos adyacentes a plantas de acero. La normalización de los metales al hierro y la estimación del los índices de polución integral, permitió determinar que los suelos contaminados por metales pesados fueron aquellos, cuya ubicación coincide con la dirección predominante de los vientos en la zona estudiada. Los valores del índice de enriquecimiento mostraron que las concentraciones de metales pesados en los suelos de esas granjas, superan los niveles permisibles para la agricultura urbana.

Palabras clave

metales pesados; Cuba; análisis por fluorescencia de rayos X; polución del suelo; fundidores; áreas urbanas;agricultura; suelo

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