Niveles de radionúclidos naturales y metales pesados en suelos urbanos de la ciudad de Cienfuegos, Cuba

Oscar Díaz Rizo, Eduardo Quintana Miranda, Carlos M. Alonso Hernández

Resumen

Se determinan las concentraciones de metales pesados y radionúclidos naturales en suelos superficiales (0-10 cm) de la ciudad de Cienfuegos, Cuba, mediante las técnicas de fluorescencia de rayos X y espectrometría gamma respectivamente. Los resultados de la medición de metales pesados mostraron que las concentraciones promedio de Ni, Cu, Zn y Pb en los suelos estudiados son superiores a los valores correspondientes de fondo. El cálculo del Índice de Polución Integral permitió determinar que estos suelos presentan una contaminación severa por metales pesados. Las concentraciones de , y en los suelos urbanos de Cienfuegos se encuentran en los intervalos de 8.3-32.7, 3.7-10.7 y 129-356 , con promedios de 22.6, 6.3 y 272 respectivamente, valores que son similares a los reportados para la zona Centro-Sur de Cuba. La tasa de dosis absorbida en aire y la dosis equivalente efectiva anual que recibe la población local producto de la radiación natural es inferior a los límites establecidos internacionalmente. Se determinaron correlaciones positivas significativas de -Cu y -Zn, indicando la posible presencia de una fuente de contaminación por estos elementos en la zona.

Palabras clave

metales pesados, Cuba, áreas urbanas, suelos, radiactividad natural, control de la contaminación

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Referencias

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