Distribución espacial y estudio de contaminación por metales pesados en polvos urbanos de la ciudad de Camagüey (Cuba) mediante fluorescencia de rayos X

Oscar Díaz Rizo, Oreste Rivero Plama

Resumen

Se determinan por fluorescencia de rayos X las concentraciones de Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn y Pb en los polvos urbanos de la ciudad de Camagüey. Los contenidos medios de metales pesados en las muestras de polvos urbanos (97 ± 30, 14 ± 2, 35 ± 36, 94 ± 26, 199 ± 87 y 42 ± 29 mg.kg-1 en peso seco respectivamente) son comparados con las concentraciones medias determinadas en otras ciudades del mundo. Los mapas de distribución espacial indican comportamientos similares para Cr–Ni y Pb–Zn–Cu respectivamente, en tanto la distribución espacial de Co difiere del resto de los metales. La normalización a un metal de referencia, empleando como fondo los valores medios de concentraciones de metales pesados cubanos, mostró que los polvos urbanos de la ciudad de Camagüey tienen un enriquecimiento moderado o significativo de Zn y Pb en aquellas áreas que están asociadas a una elevada densidad del tráfico automotor y a la ubicación de plantas metalúrgicas. El cálculo del índice de riesgo ecológico potencial mostró que el contenido de metales pesados en los polvos urbanos de Camagüey no representa riesgo alguno para su población.

Palabras clave

metales pesados; análisis por fluorescencia de rayos X; polvo; polución; riesgos para la salud; carreteras; distribución espacial; tasa de relevancia; Cuba

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Referencias

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