La imagen nuclear con anticuerpos monoclonales radiomarcados: viejas aplicaciones con nuevos enfoques

Anaís Prats Capote, René Leyva Montaña, Regla Caridad Atiés Pérez, Alejandro Perera Pintado

Resumen

Los anticuerpos monoclonales marcados con radionucleidos fueron en sus inicios ampliamente empleados para el estudio de diversas enfermedades, fundamentalmente oncológicas mediante la inmunogammagrafía. Estos fueron poco a poco sustituidos por moléculas con mejores prestaciones como los péptidos y la 18F-fluordesoxiglucosa (18F-FDG). No obstante, en el presente siglo, la amplia introducción de la inmunoterapia produjo un cambio de paradigma en cuanto al empleo de los anticuerpos monoclonales radiomarcados para la adecuada selección y seguimiento de los pacientes a ser tratados con inmunoterapia, resurgiendo la inmunotomografía por emisión de fótón único (inmuno-SPECT), la inmunotomografía por emisión de positrones (inmuno-PET) y la imagen corregistrada con la tomografía axial computarizada (TAC), como modalidades de gran valor en el manejo del cáncer. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue brindar una panorámica acerca de la evolución de la imagen nuclear con anticuerpos monoclonales radiomarcados y sus principales aplicaciones en el tiempo, fundamentalmente en el estudio de los pacientes con cáncer.

Palabras clave

análisis radioinmunológico; antígenos; anticuerpos; tomografía de emisión computerizada de fotón único; tomografía computerizada con positrón; anticuerpos monoclonales; radioinmunoescintigrafía

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